Saturday, January 18, 2020

Janis Groupthink

Have you ever thought about speaking up in a meeting and then decided against it because you did not want to appear unsupportive of the group's efforts? If so, you have probably been a victim of â€Å"Groupthink†. Irving Lester Janis (26 May 1918 – 15 November 1990) was a research psychologist at Yale University and most famous for his theory of â€Å"groupthink† which described the systematic errors made by groups when taking collective decisions(Wikipedia). Janis described â€Å"groupthink† as â€Å"a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group. When the members’ striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action†(Janis,1972,p. 8). Janis identified eight symptoms(features) of groupthink. They were- 1)Illusion of Invulnerability-This leads the group to excessive optimism, over confidence leading them to take extraordinary risks. It may also lead them to ignore clear signs of risks. 2)Collective Rationalization-Victims of groupthink construct rationalizations and discount and discredit negative feedback and advice from the oppositions. )Illusion of morality-Group members often tend to ignore the ethical and moral consequences of their decisions. 4)Stereotyped views of others-Victims of Groupthink have a stereotyped view towards opponents who give different opinions. They consider them to be too stupid or weak to handle the problem. 5)Pressure on Dissent-Group members apply direct pressure on anyone who opposes the idea or validity supporting a decision or opini on favored by the majority. Example-Body language,Voice tone. 6)Self-censorship-They tend to censor themselves when they have opinions opposing the majority of the group. This minimizes the members doubts and opinions to themselves and not to the group. They withhold dissenting views and counter arguments. Example-Keeping quiet and not giving an opinion due to opposing views. 7)Illusion of unanimity-Victims of groupthink have an illusion that the whole group is in unanimity. This symptom is caused by the preceding symptom. This is due to the false assumption that anybody who doesn’t give an opinion is in unanimity with the group’s decision. Silence is taken as consent. )Mindguarding-A few group members take up the role of mind-guards so as to protect the other members of the group from excessive information and facts that might destroy the majority decision. They stand up to prove the information wrong and label them stupid(stereotyped). This type of dysfunctional operation of an organization has many opportunities for failure. The basic fundamentals of this process are the beginnings of failure as groups seeks conformity and unity as th ey sacrifice everything in order to maintain peace within the group. These eight symptoms of groupthink identified by Janis leads to defective decision making. Victims of grouthink never consider all the alternatives,they do not re-examine the alternatives,they reject negative information and have no contingency plans. The above are due to the stereotyped view of the victims and they act in this way to not disrupt the idea of the majority. This is what the organizations should be careful of. A real life example of â€Å"groupthink† leading to a defective decision making is Challenger Space Shuttle disaster. This occurred on January 28,1986 launched from John F. Kennedy space centre. It was considered to be the most tragic event after John F. Kennedy’s assassination. The presidential commission that investigated the accident showed that defective decision making was the main cause. MTI engineers presented that the mission would fail as the shuttle would not succeed in such cold temperatures. But,the flight officials put forward technical rationalizations faulting MTI’s analysis. One of these rationalizations was that the data was incohensive showing their stereotyped view. The officials also forced Thiokol officials to change their recommendation from avoiding delay to the launch. This shows pressure on dissent. Hence,as expected the mission failed after 73 seconds of the launch killing 7 astronauts aboard. This example shows us how the officials had symptoms of groupthink and how it lead them to a defective decision making process. The challenge for any team or group leader is to create a working environment in which Groupthink is unlikely to happen. Hence we could avoid groupthink by exploring objectives,exploring alternatives,encouraging ideas to be challenged without reprisal,examining the risks if the preferred choice is chosen,testing assumptions,gathering relevant information from outside sources,processing this information objectively,have at least one contingency plan. References: 1)Moorhead,Gregory,Ference,Richard and Neck,Chris P. 1991 ‘Group decision fiascos continue:Shuttle challenger and a revised groupthink framework’. Human Relations 44/6: 539-550. 2)Wikipedia.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Octane Service Station Essay

On March 15, Julio Trevino signed a lease agreement to operate a gasoline service station that was owned by the Octane Oil Company (here after, simply â€Å"Octane†). Trevino had contacted the regional sales manager of Octane in response to an advertisement that solicited applicants â€Å"with $25,000 to invest† to lease and operate a newly erected Octane gasoline service station. Trevino had been able to accumulate approximately $32,000 for investment purposes as a result of a $25,000 inheritance and savings on the salary of $865 per week he earned as manager of a service station operated as a separate department of a J.C. Penney store. Most of this $32,000 was held in government bonds. The regional sales manager for Octane was impressed with Trevino’s personal and financial qualifications, and after several interviews, a lease agreement was signed. During one of these meetings the sales manager informed Trevino that the new station would be ready for occupancy on May 1st at a total investment cost of $300,000. Of this amount, $100,000 had already been paid for land, and a total of $200,000 would be spent for a building that would be â€Å"good for about 40 years†. In discussing profit potential, the sales manager pointed out that Octane’s national advertising program and the consumer appeal generated by the attractive station â€Å"will be worth at least $30,000 a year to you in consumer goodwill.† The lease agreement stipulated that Trevino pay a rental of $1,250 per month for the station plus $0.04 for each gallon of gasoline delivered t the station by Octane1. A separate agreement was also signed whereby Octane agreed to sell and Trevino agreed to buy a certain minimum quantities of gasoline and other automotive products for the service station operation. As both evidence of good faith and as a prepayment on certain obligations that he would shortly incur to Octane, Trevino was required to deposit $20,000 with Octane at the time the lease was signed. Trevino raised the cash for this deposit by liquidating government bonds. Octane used most of this money to defray certain obligations incurred by Trevino to  the oil company prior to the opening of the new station. The deductions from the $20,000 deposits were applied as follow: 1 The lease, which covered a period of one year beginning May 1, was automatically renewable unless notice of cancellation was given by either party at lease 30 days prior to an anniversary date. The regional sales manager of the Octane Oil Company estimated that approximately 150,000 gallons of gasoline would be delivered to Trevino’s Service Station during the first 12 months of operations. Subsequently, Trevino’s records revealed that 27,000 gallons (including the initial inventory) were actually delivered during the first two months of operation. The equipment, including floor and hydraulic jacks, a battery charger, tune-up sets, and oil and grease guns, became Trevino’s property. A representative of the oil company stated that this equipment would last about five years. The unpaid, non-interest bearing balance of $10,300 Trevino owed Octane for equipment was to be paid in five semi-annual installments of $2,060 each. The first such payment was due November 1. The $2,755 remaining from the $20,000 originally deposited with Octane was returned to Trevino on April 30. He deposited this money in a special checking account he had set up for his service station venture. Just before opening for business on May 1, Trevino converted some additional government bonds into $7,000 cash which he also placed in the service station account. Prior to May 1, he wrote the following checks: $1,650 for office furniture that had an expected life of 10 years, and $900 for a fire and casualty insurance policy providing coverage for a one year period beginning May 1. On April 30, Trevino transferred $200 from the service station checking account to the cash drawer at the service station. It was Trevino’s intention to deposit in the bank all but $200 of the cash on hand at the close of each business day. The balance in the service station checking account at the start of business was, therefore, $7,005. In addition, Trevino had $2,700 in a savings account. On May 1, the service station was opened for business. In his effort to build up clientele, Trevino worked approximately 60 hours per week compared with 40 in his previous job. In addition, three other people were employed on either a full or part-time basis. Trevino was reasonably satisfied with the patronage he was able to build up during the first two months the station was open. At the end of June, however, he felt it would be desirable to take a more careful look at how he was making out in his new business venture. Trevino felt that he should record his progress and present position in a form that would be useful not only at the present time but also for comparative purposes in the future, perhaps a six months intervals ending on June 30 and December 31. Trevino maintained a simple record keeping system in which cash receipts and cash payments were itemized daily in a loose-leaf notebook. Separate pages were reserved for specific items in this notebook. During the months of May and June, the following cash receipts and payments had been recorded: The $500 listed in cash receipts as rental from parking area had been receive from an adjacent business establishment that used one portion of the service station site as a parking space for certain of its employees. The rental received covered a period extending from May 15 to July 15. In addition to the record of cash receipts and payments, a detailed listing was kept of the amounts of money that were due from, or owed to, other individuals or companies. An analysis of these records revealed that $143 was due the business for gas, oil, and car servicing from a wealthy  widow friend of the Trevino family who preferred to deal on a credit basis. Also, on the evening of June 30, one of the employees completed waxing a car for a regular customer who was out of town and would be unable to call for his car until July 3. Trevino had quoted a price of $56 for this job. Trevino recalled that when he once worked at an automobile agency, he had heard that setting up a reserve for bad debts equal to two percent of all outstanding accounts was a good idea. Trevino had also jotted down the fact that he and his family had used gas and oil from the service station worth $101 at retail prices, for which no payment had been made. Approximately $79 had been paid to Octane Oil Company for this merchandise. A further summary of his records revealed the following unpaid bills resulting from operations in June: The service station’s employees had last been paid on Saturday, June 28, for services rendered through Saturday evening. Wages earned on June 29 and 30 would amount to $232 in the following Saturday’s payroll. Trevino took a physical inventory on the evening of June 20, and he found gasoline, motor oil, grease, tires, batteries, and accessories on hand that had cost $10,018. While Trevino was figuring his inventory position, he compared his recorded gallonage sales of gasoline on hand at the end of  the period against the volume of gasoline at the beginning inventory plus deliveries. In this manner, Trevino ascertained that shrinkage due to evaporation, temperature changes, waste and other causes amounted to 302 gallons of gasoline that he estimated had cost $360. Late in June, Trevino’s married son realized that he would be unable, because of prolonged illness to make payment of $192 for interest expense and $800 for principal repayment on a $2,400 bank loan. Trevino, who had acted as co-signer on the note, would be obligated to meet this payment on July 1.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Personally Identifiable Information (Pii) and Ethics Use...

Personally Identifiable Information (PII) and Ethics: Use of Cookies Cookie Trails In today’s era of technology, many people are concerned about internet privacy. Most concerns are usually sparked by misinformation. One piece of technology that is most misunderstood is the cookie and its uses. Many people believe that cookies are programs that can transfer viruses onto their computers. This is absolutely false. Cookies are typically harmless. Cookies are little text files left on your hard disk by some websites you visit (Williams amp; Stacy C. Sawyer, 2013, p.105). These text files store information about the user like preferences, log-in name, and password. Cookies can be very beneficial for users who frequent many†¦show more content†¦After public outcry and a class-action suit (which was settled in 2002), DoubleClick did an about-face and said it had made a huge mistake (Peneberg, 2005). When cookies are used in this manner it definitely brings ethical issues to the forefront. It is an invasion of privacy to take, use and potentially sell information that was not knowingly shared. It is an abuse of privileges users innocently extend to websites. If this invasion of privacy is allowed to continue, one could only wonder what will await the unsuspecting user in future. It is quite plausible for large marketing and advertising firms to start tampering with cookies, eventually creating more evasive ways of snooping on users, and in the process obtaining more crucial information like social security numbers. Marketers dont fear that the government will ban or restrict cookies someday. After heavy lobbying they managed to secure an amendment to the Securely Protect Yourself Against Cyber Trespass Act that would exempt cookies from any spyware legislation that passes in the House (Peneberg, 2005). The people could rally together to band cookies, but that would make browsing the web difficult for all. It would make more sense to establish stricter regulations against tracking cookies. When companies start to dig too deep and go too far, the people will rebel. Cookies should remain just simple textShow MoreRelatedInternet Privacy Law: a Comparison Between the United States and the European Union9297 Words   |  38 PagesCarolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7229 1David_Baumer@ncsu.edu 2Julia_Earp@ncsu.edu 3JC_Poindexter@ncsu.edu Internet Privacy Law: A Comparison between the United States and the European Union Abstract The increasing use of personal information in web-based applications has created privacy concerns worldwide. This has led to awareness among policy makers in several countries regarding the desirability of harmonizing privacy laws. The challenge with privacy legislation from anRead MoreInternet Privacy Law: a Comparison Between the United States and the European Union9303 Words   |  38 PagesNorth Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7229 1David_Baumer@ncsu.edu 2Julia_Earp@ncsu.edu 3JC_Poindexter@ncsu.edu Internet Privacy Law: A Comparison between the United States and the European Union Abstract The increasing use of personal information in web-based applications has created privacy concerns worldwide. This has led to awareness among policy makers in several countries regarding the desirability of harmonizing privacy laws. The challenge with privacy legislation from anRead MoreEssay on The Legality and Ethics of Internet Advertising1777 Words   |  8 PagesThe Legality and Ethics of Internet Advertising ABSTRACT: Recently, DoubleClick.com, one of the world’s premier Internet advertising firms was at the center of a Federal Trade Commission investigation on privacy. Consumer privacy advocates have charged the company with infringing on the privacy of websurfers because of the aggressive means it uses to gather data for profit. This paper discusses the legal and moral issues surrounding these tactics. Were the company’s aggressive tacticsRead More8 Key Element for a Business Model7314 Words   |  30 PagesSet  of  planned  activities  designed  to  result  in  a   Set of planned activities designed to result in a profit  in  a  marketplace Business  plan Describes  a  firm s  business  model Describes a firm’s business model E commerce  business  model E†commerce business model Uses/leverages  unique  qualities  of  Internet  and   Web W b Slide 2-3 8 Key Elements of Business Model 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Value  proposition Revenue  model Market  opportunity Market opportunity Competitive  environment Competitive  advantage Market  strategyRead MoreeCommerce Developments and Themes10793 Words   |  44 PagesE-Business Chapter 1 E-commerce Developments and Themes- 2003 More: ï  ® Use of the Internet to conduct commerce ï  ® deepening of e-commerce channel ï  ® Broadband and wireless Internet access ï  ® refined e-commerce business models (→ higher levels of profitability) But at societal level: continued conflict over copyrights, content regulation, taxation, privacy, and Internet fraud and abuse. E-commerce E-business E-commerce involves digitally enabled commercial transactions between and among

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The New Problem of Internet Addiction - 764 Words

With reference to relevant literature, identify and discuss a concern which has become a problem for users of the internet. Miniwatts Marketing Group (2009) stated that more than two billion people use the internet. The internet is a world wide web of computer networks, all linked to one another. The internet enables people to communicate almost instantly, research and access data or information, and is most commonly used for email. The popularity of email has almost seen the demise of postal services (Harris, 2007). This essay will argue that one concern for users of the internet is addiction, as millions of users become consumed in the habit, with severe cases of internet addiction resulting in death and violence. Internet addiction is a habit addiction, rather than a form of substance abuse. According to Kimberley Young it is â€Å"the world’s fastest growing addiction† (2009, p 2). Perhaps the reason for this is due to the many ways in which the internet can be used and how commonly accessible it has become in the home or office. For example, the internet can be used for online shopping, virtual gaming, social networking and aspects of the internet that are addictive. The concern with this is how the use of the internet is impacting on a person’s everyday living. Similarly to other forms of addiction, inappropriate use of the internet can result in lost employment, broken relationships, financial loss and even death. In an extreme case, a teenage addict killed hisShow MoreRelatedInternet Addiction1662 Words   |  7 PagesInternet Addiction Introduction While some media news and reports seem to be truthful in their effort to inform and educate the public regarding internet addiction, it is not surprising to see bad science and misinterpretation presented in others on the same issue. The media coverage of internet addiction is damaging and blowing the issue out of context. The widespread internet concern is reinforced and underpinned by media reporting about internet addiction and young people, characteristicallyRead MoreInternet Addiction1666 Words   |  7 PagesInternet Addiction is a problem more common in society as Internet usage is increasing. The prevalence of Internet use worldwide is increasing. Along with the benefits the Internet brings, problems of excessive Internet use is becoming apparent. As a result, along with drug and alcoholic addictions nowadays, there is one more – Internet addiction, last but not least. The opinions on the methods for the solution vary, because the problem was not studied enough. One of the solutions is to attend supportRead MoreThe Problem Of Internet Addiction1221 Words   |  5 Pagesexample of dependence on a source of technology is the use of the internet. People from all over the world depend on the internet for their everyday needs ranging from grocery shopping to entertainment. Our dependence on this resource increases daily. This dependence has caused side effects not foreshadowed with the internet. Now humanity is faced with reality of internet addiction. Just like any other addiction to drugs, internet addiction can ruin a person and their family. It disconnects people fromRead MoreEssay on Internet addiction1725 Words   |  7 PagesInternet and Video Game Addiction Internet addiction is a worldwide disorder that is oblivious to the technological age we live in. Since its inception in 1991 (Livingstone), the World Wide Web has only improved our quality of life. People don’t perceive online technology as a problem but as a solution to make our lives cheaper and efficient. As a working college student, my whole life is run on the internet. I use Facebook religiously to keep in-touch with my friends, I play Xbox Live to competeRead MoreInternet Addiction And Digital Dependency Among Young New Zealand Adults Essay1519 Words   |  7 Pagesthemselves while using the internet, whether it is for social media, educational or for business use. The internet is a large part of an individual’s daily life, particularly young New Zealand adults from the ages of 18 to 30 years old. Majority of individuals cannot go days or even hours without checking social media or using the some form of digital technology. This is has resulted in multiple clin icians, academics and even journalists claiming that there is a new form of addiction impacting societiesRead MoreThe Internet Addiction Disorder1152 Words   |  5 Pages An increasing problem streaming throughout the global society today is IAD or Internet Addiction Disorder. Our culture along with many others has been consumed with the ease and pleasure of shopping, gaming, and social networking through online portals to the point that it has become an overwhelming problem for some people. What Internet Addiction Disorder is exactly has been the topic of much debate and so has what makes internet addiction so addicting. IAD is a serious problem and is receivingRead MoreThe Influence Of Internet Addiction1053 Words   |  5 Pages The Influence of Internet Addiction Have you been though things such as you open up your laptop to do your work or study but ended up playing video games and surfing on internet? It is believed that a great amount of people feel like this. Nowadays, we live in a world with highly developed internet and electronic devices. Highly advanced internet make our life better, which is non-debatable, but there are also some drawbacks brought up by improper internet usage and one of the most influentialRead MoreIs Internet Addiction Disorder? Essay1483 Words   |  6 Pages Internet addiction disorder, more commonly called problematic Internet use, refers to excessive computer use which interferes with daily life. Internet overuse, problematic computer use, or pathological computer use, problematic Internet use, or Internet addiction disorder. In the most recent version of the DSM-5, Internet Gaming Disorder is the latest term to describe this problem. History IAD was originally proposed as a disorder in a satirical hoax by Ivan Goldberg, M.D., in 1995, althoughRead MoreNegative Effects Of Internet Addiction935 Words   |  4 Pageswork or study but ended up playing video games and surfing the internet? It is believed that a lot of people feel like this. Nowadays, we live in a world with highly developed internet and electronic devices. The highly advanced internet makes our lives better, which is non-debatable, but there are also some drawbacks brought up by improper internet usage and one of the most influential symptoms is Internet addiction. Internet addiction affects people by causing the deterioration of the quality ofRead MoreInternet Addiction And Its Negative Impact1002 Words   |  5 PagesThe Buzz about Internet Addiction and its Negative Impact Meta Description: The internet connects millions of people, providing information, entertainment and communication platform. HealthyHow2 is a leading resource for well-researched medical information. Internet Addiction The internet has become an integral component of our life, and this has greatly transformed the way we access information, communicate and do our work. Added to this fact, the internet is widely available in people’s homes

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Nutrition And Its Effects On Health Essay - 1977 Words

As income increases, various people are finding it less time-consuming to purchase already prepared foods instead a home-cooked meal. With the increase in income, individuals are forgetting the importance of nutrition and its effects on our overall health. When it comes to nutrition, individuals should observe what are their inputs and outputs in order to maintain a healthy consumption balance. Through this constant observation, it can aid an individual in maintaining a balanced intake of foods. At the same time, it may help reduce the risk of obtaining an illness or disease. The observation can also assist you in understanding your health and assist you in asking assistance from a registered dietitian to help improve the diet. But, we cannot forget that nutrition works alongside physical activity and it needs to be accounted for to maintain a healthy diet. When one maintains a healthy diet, it can protect the health of the body from outside influences. In addition, to ensure that I consume the necessary amounts of the nutrients, I was asked to record a two week consumption of foods. It will help determine whether or not I have a healthy diet. This will help me evaluate my overall intake of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Before any documentation is done, I will hypothesize that I do not consume enough nutrients that are required to help my body function properly. Materials Methods In order to record and test the experiment, I used a Microsoft Excel Meal PlanShow MoreRelatedNutrition And Its Effects On Health933 Words   |  4 PagesJust as nutrition can have drastic effects on one’s physical health, nutrition can affect one’s mental health as well. The most common mental disorders that are prevalent in numerous countries are depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The dietary pattern of the general population in many countries reflect that they are often deficient in many nutrients, especially essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids. Deficiency in these vitamins canRead MoreNutrition And Its Effects On Health Essay1992 Words   |  8 Pagesindividuals are forgetting the importance of nutrition and its effects on our overall health. When it comes to nutrition, many individuals should observe what are their inputs and outputs in order to maintain a healthy consumption balance. Through th is constant observation, it can help an individual maintain a balance intake of foods. At the same time, it may help reduce the risk of obtaining an illness or disease. The observation can also help you understand your health and assisting you in asking help fromRead MoreThe Effects Of Nutrition On Health And Health955 Words   |  4 PagesHealth is a widely used term and every person’s definition of health and being healthy can be vastly different. There are many different ways to achieve good health and to be healthy, but one thing in common that is important no matter what, is nutrition. Nutrition greatly influences our health and can be detrimental in preventing or treating a disease. Prevention is crucial to stay healthy and free of illness and disease and nutrition plays a huge part in this process. Nutrition is important inRead MoreThe Effects Of Psychology On The Health And Nutrition World Essay1830 Words   |  8 Pagespossible minor in Psychology, I am interested in how psychology plays a role in the health and nutrition world. A concerning problem in health and nutrition is obesity. Obesity can be associated with a family history and most people associate it this problem with genetics. However, a part of psychology that provides an influence on obesity is stress, which can be triggered by many factors. Social position has a strong effect on stress of individuals in certain populations, specifically socioeconomicallyRead MoreThe Effects Of Artificial Nutrition On Health Professionals981 Words   |  4 Pagesfluid and nutrition is needed for survival, many health professionals are currently going through an ethical dilemma of whether or not to provide artificial tube feeding for patients with terminal diseases. This ethical decision that affects health professionals must take into consideration the recent research that opposes ANH for this population. These studies have demonstrated that artificial nutrition provides higher risk of medical c omplications, increased pain, and false hope of health recoveryRead MoreThe Destruction Of Nutrition And Its Effects On The Environment And Human Health1597 Words   |  7 PagesThe Destruction of Nutrition In the last two decades genetically modified organisms (GMO) have radically transformed the food and farming industry. With the use of constant animal testing and lab conducted research, scientists have yet to breach the exact effects of what gene manipulations actually are especially in a long term sense. With GMO manufacturing companies, such as Monsanto, marketing the use of GMO to be a groundbreaking, healthy and practical food developing source, eyes have beenRead MoreHuman Nutrition And Its Effects On The Health Of Obese People1335 Words   |  6 PagesHuman nutrition is one of the vital topics discussed in the fields of health, largely because a diet predicts the well-being of the human species. Recently, Americans have been eating a particularly hurtful diet, deficient in nutrients needed to maintain a healthy physiological state. A steady increase of obese and overweight people developed over the course of the last century to present day, and the issue has only recently g ained the attention of the public. The cause for concern is due to theRead MoreThe Effect Of Nutrition On Early Children s Development And Health2543 Words   |  11 PagesThe influence of nutrition on early child’s development and health Danuta Brodzinska ECE1700 - Advanced Curricula Professor: Eva May Tuesday, July 21, 2015 Research Essay Outline Introduction A) The importance of nutrition on child’s development and health †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.3 B) Malnutrition †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 Body paragraphs 1. Physical development †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 A) Important nutrients, vitamins and minerals for physical growth †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 B) Needed caloriesRead MoreThe Relationship Between Nutrition And Its Effects On Health And Well Being Through Randomized Experiment With Control And Treatment Groups3877 Words   |  16 Pages The proposed study aims to examine the relationship between nutrition and its effects on health and well being through a randomized experiment with control and treatment groups. There are several studies that research the relationship between nutrition and aging and show the promising affects. In this study, different types of nutritional diets will be examined and implemented in an intervention plan. Two plans will be implemented to cater to those of high and low socioeconomic status. OneRead MoreThe Effects Of Physical Health On Sleep And Dreams1669 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effects of Physical Health on Sleep and Dreams The human body and mind work together in a continual cycle of work and rest, there are many people who neglect their physical health, in turn neglecting their psychological health. Every action taken, no matter how significant or insignificant to the body during the working cycle or waking hours, has positive and negative effects on the resting cycle or recovery hours. Although, it is important to maintain the balance of proper nutrition, adequate

Monday, December 9, 2019

Nursing and Healthcare

Question: Discuss about predispose factors for domestic abuse and role of the public health nurse to prevent domestic abuse. Answer: Predispose factors for domestic abuse: Domestic violence is a form of behavior which involves conflicting violence against another person within the purview of different domestic relationships in the society such as marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV). As stated by Goldstein (2013), there are various forms of domestic violence such as physical, verbal, emotional, religious, economic and sexual abuse. Domestic violence may be understood as a coercive form of marital rape or physical abuse. As stated by Rosen (2013), alcohol and drugs are the main contributors of violent behavior. It has been observed that intoxicated individuals are less likely to have control on the impulses towards their partners. Alcohol and drugs influence the person towards the evil of domestic violence. As opined by Breiding, Chen and Black (2014), addicted individuals often lose their physical and psychological control and tend to become emotional. It has been observed that domestic violence has been increasing in the United States due to the social boundaries of gender and sexual orientation (Rosen, 2013). Moreover, the Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has affected many people in United States (Truman Morgan, 2014). More than 1.9 million women and 3.2 million men have faced physical assault in 2014 (Goldstein, 2013). According to the Department of Justice report 2000, of US, more than 22.1% of women and 7.5% men have been physically assaulted in cases of domestic violence (Rosen, 2013). On the other hand, poverty is another influential factor for domestic violence (Rosen, 2013). According to Truman and Morgan (2014), the young generation seems to be addicted to alcohol, drugs and pills which in turn lead to domestic violence. Often it is observed that the younger generation is attracted to heterosexual relationships and this in turn leads to dating violence. It has been noticed that some un-prevented infectious diseases such as AIDS, Cancer and other critical diseases have increased domestic violence in United States (Breiding, Chen Black, 2014). Role of the public health nurse to prevent domestic abuse: It has been observed that domestic violence is the largest cause of injury among women. It has been observed that more than four million women are assaulted by their partners (Rosen, 2013). Therefore, domestic violence portrays a sense of power, control and coercive behavior of an individual over another in a relationship (Goldstein, 2013). Therefore, the health and social care executives have observed that the main reasons for domestic violence is addiction to drugs and alcohol, un-prevented disease and psychological condition of the people. To understand this better, the health and social care executives and nurses have observed a report by the National Family Violence Survey. The health and social care executives have implemented a caring strategy as per the central ethic of caring and agenda of early intervention (Rosen, 2013). The nurses have taken care of the victims of abuse in domestic situation. It has been observed that violence has a profound impact on women and children. The healthcare nurses have arranged awareness projects presenting the ill effects of alcohol consumption and drugs. Healthcare nurses have given much concern to the safety of children (Breiding, Chen Black, 2014). These nurses have also provided psychological support to the affected women or men. The nurses hope that such support would decrease the fear or hate they have for their partners. Additionally, psychiatrists have also tried providing mental support to the patients so as to eliminate stress and depression in them. Reference list: Breiding, M. J., Chen, J., Black, M. C. (2014).Intimate Partner Violence in the United States--2010. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Goldstein, D. (2013).Laughter out of place: Race, class, violence, and sexuality in a Rio shantytown. Univ of California Press. Rosen, R. (2013).The world split open: How the modern women's movement changed America. Tantor eBooks. Truman, J. L., Morgan, R. E. (2014). Nonfatal domestic violence, 2003-2012.Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

William Shakespeare`S Macbeth Essays (863 words) -

William Shakespeare`S Macbeth Character Sketch: Young Macduff a.k.a son In William Shakespeares Macbeth, an epic play about blood, glory and pride, Young Mcduff's tragic yet heroic lifestory is revealed. His father of course is Macduff, one of Scotland's most prestigous nobleman, and his mother is Lady Macduff. Macduff was very close to King Duncan and after his untimely death, he always had his suspicions about Macbeth. He chose not to join Macbeth's coronation and later fled Scotland as a traitor leaving his family alone in a ruthless and chaotic country that Scotland had become known for. These actions led to his family having to fend for themselves and eventually being killed by murderers sent by Macbeth. Young Macduff was killed by murderer's sent by Macbeth. This was Macbeth's attempt to essentially keep Macduff on his heels. This backfired because Macduff vowed to kill Macbeth, and as we all know he kept true to his promise. Moreover, Young Macduff only appears in the play briefly and it is in his own murder scene. He looks to be a young lad that is a little big for his age, and thus is treated more like a man by people he encounters. He is an average looking boy that dresses in earthy toned robes that represent his down to earth attitude. Young Macduff's character is one that is charcterized not by his appearance but more so by his inner being. Infact his name in the play's script is simply son. I feal this was Shakespeare truly giving Young Macduff a name that is a definition of his character. He is a son that shows great passion and love for his family and is driven to succeed largely in part to this passion. He is also witty, courageous, and intelligent, a potent combination not only for a child but for a man. Furthermore, young Macduff's intelligent and witt shines amazingly bright during his last conversation. When his mother tells him that his father was a traitor, and traitors are liars that get hanged by the honest men. He replies to Lady Macbeth by telling her that the traitors must be stupid because there are easily enough traitors to join and hang the honest men. Later he denounces his mother's statement that his father is dead by telling her that if his father truly had been killed she would be crying and since she was not crying it must be a good sign. Both these statements show Young Macduff's witt and intelect, but his most important characteristic is his courageous love for his family. Even when his own murderer's spoke ill of his father he snaped and insulted them by calling them shag-eared vilians. That leads me to his most courageous and significant line in the play. He has killed me, mother. Run away, I pray you! (IV,II, ll.90-91). This line shows the essence of his courag e and love for his family. Even while he is being brutally slayed he looks out for his family and want's them to be saved. He makes an emotional plea to his mother to flea for she is probably the next one to be killed. To continue, Young Macduff's greatest character traits are his intellect, his witt, his love for his family and his courage. These are simply the characteristics of a noble man who is just trying to do the right thing. Unfortunetly two of his best points are also his flaws. He loves his family to a flaw, and he is courageous to the same extent. He didn't have to stand up for his father and he didn't have to plea to his mother but he did and he was courageous enougjh to do it, even if it meant being killed in a much more brutal manor. Furthermore, Young Macduff is vital to the plot for it is his death that triggers Macdufff to kill Macbeth. Even deeper than that, Young Macduff represents Scotland and all that it can be as a witty intellectuall powerhouse, but more so, waht it is a nation mared in bloody chaotic confusion. You see Young Macduff is Scotland and Scotland is Young Macduff. Moreover, Young Macduff is a dynamic character in the physical sense. He is introduced than killed